By Arthur Goldschmidt Jr., Aomar Boum
An creation to the historical past of this turbulent area from the beginnings of Islam to the current day, this greatly acclaimed textual content by means of Arthur Goldschmidt Jr. is exceptional by way of its transparent sort, vast scope, and balanced remedy. This booklet explores the evolution of Islamic associations and tradition, the effect of the West, the modernization efforts of center jap governments, the fight of assorted peoples for political independence, the Arab–Israeli clash, the reassertion of Islamic values and gear, the problems surrounding the Palestinian query, and the post-9/11 center East.
The 11th version has been totally revised to mirror the latest occasions in, and matters of, the quarter, together with an multiplied and extra nuanced dialogue of the “War on Terrorism” and the Arab uprisings, insurance of the increase of ISIS, and a brand new bankruptcy at the growing to be environmental difficulties of the zone. furthermore, the authors have included new scholarship at the early heritage to supply a fuller photo of the political shifts and socioeconomic issues of that point. With up to date bibliographical sketches, chronology and thesaurus, A Concise background of the center East continues to be a vital textual content for college kids of center East background.
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Extra resources for A Concise History of the Middle East (11th Edition)
The main domesticated animals raised in ‘Iraq are camels, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, donkeys, mules, and Arabian horses. Migratory birds as well as ibis, herons, hubaras, vultures, and buzzards live in various parts of ‘Iraq. A variety of fresh water fish can be found, including carp, barbus, catfish, eels, and shad. The lower reaches of the rivers also have species that migrate from the Gulf to spawn or feed, including anchovies, garfish, gobies, sharks, stingrays, and sea bream. ‘Iraq is located in the warmer part of the Northern Temperate Zone.
Semitic, Indo-European, and Mediterranean strains have mixed in ‘Iraq over the centuries, but the dominant characteristics are those of the Semitic peoples who migrated from the Syrian Desert and the Arabian Peninsula both before and after Islam. There is a prevailing Arab cultural identification, which is seen as an heir to the earlier Mesopotamian civilizations. The people of ancient Mesopotamia spoke Sumerian, a language not related to any other known language. The Akkadians used Sumerian as a religious language, while various Akkadian dialects, particularly Babylonian and Assyrian, flourished in Mesopotamia for over 2,000 years until they were replaced by Aramaic.
A third wall was built around Babylon to increase protection of the city, and additional wings were constructed in the palace to expand its size. The walls of these newly built wings and inner courts were decorated with glazed tile bas-reliefs. Other decorative additions included the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, known as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Nebuchadrezzer devoted much attention to the construction of temples; it is during his reign that the famous Tower of Babel is built.