By Kenneth M. Setton, Marshall W. Baldwin
The six volumes of A background of the Crusades will stand because the definitive heritage of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of knowledge and research of the historical past, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval global.
Read Online or Download A History of the Crusades, Volume I: The First Hundred Years PDF
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Additional info for A History of the Crusades, Volume I: The First Hundred Years
Control of the prelates was the very foundation of his power and he had no intention of abandoning it. Gregory found the imperial throne occupied by H enry IV, who had but recently come of age. The pope informed the emperor that bishops should be elected according to canon law -that is, by the clergy and people of the diocese. Henry ignored the warning and went on his way. Gregory wrote a stern letter of rebuke. The emperor replied by calling the German prelates together at Worms and having them declare Gregory a false pope improperly elected.
Moreover, the slowness of the oxen made the area that a team could care for rather small. The sole crop in the arable fields was grain. It was sown broadcast to the delight of the birds. The seed was simply a part of the previous year's crop. The land as a rule received no fertilizer beyond the manure deposited by the cattle that grazed upon it while it lay fallow. Hence the production per acre, per bushel of seed, and per man was extremely low. This meant that if the people of the village were to have enough to eat, all land that could be plowed had to be utilized.
Throughout history progress in agricultural methods has been slow and gradual. As our information concerning the eleventh century is extremely scanty, it is almost impossible to say to what extent and in what ways agricultural techniques were improved. There is some evidence that villages were changing from the twoto the three-field system and thus increasing their utilization of their arable land. I t seems likely that improvement in the design of plows and the harnessing of oxen was allowing a reduction in Cb.