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The PA approach can be of several types: PA lifetime and PA lineshape analysis (PALA). The PALA can be characterized by different methods such as Doppler broadening and PA angular correction (providing measures of S and W parameters). The use of a pulsed low energy positron system (PLEPS) can also yield additional insight into the positron lifetime spectrum. The use of 3D-APFIM data combined with PA and hardness data obtained as a function of PIA treatment can allow the separation of embrittlement into the two hardening contributions, vacancy- and solute-related hardening.

5 MEV). 5 MeV 70 80 Kola Fig. 3. Model alloy results illustrating the nickel effect. 3. WWER-1000 surveillance data Several surveillance specimen sets of WWER-1000 RPV steels have been evaluated in Russia, Ukraine and Bulgaria by different testing organizations. 2]. These materials contain low and homogeneous levels of phosphorus and copper and significant variations of nickel and manganese. The observed temperature transition shifts due to irradiation show consistent behaviour and give an indication that Mn and Ni are the main contributors to embrittlement of such low Cu and P materials.

12, there appears to be little difference in the relationship between transition temperature shift and decrease in upper shelf energy. 160 base metal weld meta Linear (base metal) 140 Linear (weld meta) 120 ∆T41J, oC 100 80 60 40 20 0 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 ∆USE, J Fig. 12. Comparison between upper shelf energy decrease and ∆T41J-ADJ for the irradiated WWER-1000 base and weld metals. 33 5. RESULTS FROM NATIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS Many participants of the CRP performed investigations with so-called “national steels” in addition to the two mandatory WWER-1000 steels.

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