By Chris Chant, Mark Rolfe
In August 1990 Saddam Hussein's Iraqi forces invaded and occupied the small Arab nation of Kuwait. This booklet analyses the consequent Gulf conflict (16 January - 28 February 1991) - a struggle fought to expel Iraq and repair Kuwaiti independence if now not, as one British MP tartly saw, to guard democracy. The allies lower than normal Schwarzkopf introduced 5 weeks of air assaults, deploying 1,800 technologically hugely complicated airplane from the USA, British, French and Saudi air forces. lots of those machines, together with the British Tornadoes and US F-117A Stealth opponents, had by no means sooner than engaged in strive against, and their mixed attack, watched via thousands on television, mixed remarkable accuracy with firepower to which the Iraqi forces had no solution.
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Additional resources for Air War in the Gulf 1991
The widespread experience of the Arabs in warfare was to be a significant factor in the early expansion of Islam. Notwithstanding the divisions inherent in the tribal structure of pre-Islamic Arabia, forces of cultural unity were present. The Bedouin ethos of bravery and honor was celebrated in a special style of Arabic poetry known as a qasidah. The existence of this poetry, which was recited at market fairs and tribal gatherings, has convinced historians that the Arabs of the seventh century possessed a common poetic language that could be understood in different regions of the peninsula.
Muhammad was invited as a mediator and was promised by Medinan representatives that any Muslims who accompanied him would receive protection. In 622 the small community of Muslims gradually migrated from Mecca to Medina. The event, known as the hijrah (emigration), marks a turning point in the development of Islam: 622 is the first year of the Muslim calendar. During his ten years in Medina, Muhammad’s status rose dramatically. From a scorned prophet with few followers, he became the head of a small state and the dominant figure throughout Arabia.
In 945 an Iranian military dynasty, the Buyids, took over temporal power in Baghdad, reducing the caliph to a figurehead and ensuring that the Iranian ruler exercised decisionmaking authority in the Abbasid Empire. According to this interpretation, the weaknesses that beset the Abbasids in the late tenth century caused Islam to enter into a long period of political and cultural decline that was intensified by the empire’s destruction in 1258 and continued until the consolidation of the Ottoman Empire in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries.