By Thomas M. Schmitt
Within the culture of the preferred first version, research of Surfactants, moment variation bargains a complete and sensible account of study tools for picking out and realizing commercially vital surfactants-individually and in compounds. Combining a whole overview of the literature with various review strategies and the necessities for advertisement items, this beneficial reference explores the major levels and most modern advancements for surfactant purposes. This version has been completely extended and contours new sections on capillary electrophoresis, ether carboxylates, and ester quats. it's also extra globally available with overseas language citations and SI units.Containing over 2400 references, drawings, tables, and equations, research of Surfactants, moment variation is an suggested reference for actual, floor, colloid, and oil chemists; analytical, learn, and caliber coverage chemists operating within the cleaning soap and detergent, prescription drugs, and beauty industries; regulatory and meals scientists; and upper-level undergraduate and graduate scholars in those disciplines.
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Extra info for Analysis of Surfactants (Surfactant Science Series)
The head space is purged with nitrogen, then the tube is stoppered and placed within a pressure tube in a heating block. After heating at 185eC for 10 min, the tube is cooled and 3 mL water is added. The resulting alkyl iodides are extracted with three 1 -mL portions of petroleum ether. The combined extracts are washed free of iodine with two 1-mL portions of 20% aqueous sodium thiosulfate solution, then evaporated to dryness on a water bath. Analysis is by gas chromatography on a 5-ft column of 10% polyethylene glycol diadipate on Celite.
Sulfonation does not change the distribution, and the high 2-phenyl isomer content LAS is more water soluble, other things being equal. Analytical methods are available for very thorough characterization of the impurities in the alkylbenzene raw material used to produce LAS. These include trace levels of tetralins and of di- and polyaromatic compounds. Analysis is via preparative HPLC separation into the major classes, followed by capillary GC/MS identification and quantification of individual components (52).
Liquid-Liquid Extraction There are a number of standard methods for this analysis, for example, ASTM D1568 for alkylaryl sulfonates, ASTM D1570 for analysis of alkyl sulfates, ISO 1104 for alkanesulfonates and certain non-LAS alkylarylsulfonates, and ASTM D3673 for oc-olefin sulfonates (6-9). As with any extraction, it is advisable to check the isolated oil by IR 14 Chapter 1 spectroscopy to determine if any anionic material has also been extracted under the conditions used. Recovery of oil is good for sulfonates, but several extractions are necessary for alkyl sulfates, while recovery from alkyl ether sulfates is quite low (10).