By Bharat Bhushan, Harald Fuchs
Volumes II, III and IV study the actual and technical beginning for fresh growth in utilized near-field scanning probe suggestions, and construct upon the 1st quantity released in early 2004. the sphere is progressing so speedy that there's a want for a moment set of volumes to catch the most recent advancements. It constitutes a well timed accomplished evaluation of SPM functions, now that business functions span topographic and dynamical floor experiences of thin-film semiconductors, polymers, paper, ceramics, and magnetic and organic fabrics. quantity II introduces scanning probe microscopy, together with sensor expertise, quantity III covers the total variety of characterization percentages utilizing SPM and quantity IV bargains chapters on makes use of in a variety of commercial functions. The foreign standpoint provided in those 3 volumes - which belong jointly - contributes additional to the evolution of SPM options.
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Extra info for Applied Scanning Probe Methods II: Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques (NanoScience and Technology) (v. 2)
A straightforward approach can be obtained through ﬁnite element [41, 1 Higher Harmonics in Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy 5 58–61] or ﬁnite difference analysis  of the oscillating cantilever. In this case, the full geometry of the cantilever must be modeled using numerical simulations. Unfortunately, such simulations are highly intensive. However, the computational effort required can be reduced by taking into account only the vibration modes that signiﬁcantly contribute to the dynamics. This leads to a truncated model consisting of only a limited number of eigenmodes.
1) where C is the capacitance of the tip–sample system. An AC voltage UAC with a frequency ω and a DC (ω = w) offset UDC is applied between tip and sample for potential imaging in Kelvin probe force microscopy. The electrostatic force is then Fel (D) = 1 dC [∆φ − UDC − UAC sin(ωt)]2 . 4) and F2ω (D) = 1 dC 2 U cos(2ωt) . 3) . 6) with a characteristic decay length (Debeye length) λ that depends upon the electrolyte concentration. This nonlinear electrostatic force is thought to contribute to the generation of higher harmonics .
459 Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O. de Paul Girard LAIN, UMR CNRS 5011, CC 082, Université de Montpellier II Place E. fr XXXIV List of Contributors – Volume II Hermann Gruber Institute for Biophysics, J. Kepler University Altenbergerstr. it Peter Hinterdorfer Institute for Biophysics, J. at Rainer Kassing University of Kassel Institute for Microstructure Technologies and Analytics, IMA Technological Physics Heinrich-Plett-Str.